The short story of plastic surgery

1000 b.C.-IV sec. a.d

Handsome at all costs!Since ancient times.

We can find tracks of plastic surgery already in the egiptians writing and sanscriti writing where there are descriptions of surgery for a facial trauma and fractures of the jaw and nose.

For the first reconstruction of noses, ears and lips we must get to Hindu texts dating to about 400 a. C. At the time fashion was cutting the nose to the enemy, and even the judiciary imposed the amputation of noses, ears and genitals. No wonder then that an Hindus author, Sushrata, described for the first encyclopedia in its Samhita, the ear reconstruction with skin taken from the cheek and nose reconstruction with the even today called “Indian method” or “Hindu”.

And always to Hindù doctors we have to refer for the first transplantation of skin taken from the buttocks.

476 d.C-1816 d.C

The short story of plastic surgery (476 d.C-1816 d.C)The fall of Rome in the 5th century and the barbarian invasions made these techniques disappear. And the Middle Ages was a period of backwardness. With a few exceptions: in the 920 in  the Leechbook of Bald, the English text of ancient medical practices, there was the description of the first operation to correct cleft palate: a malformation of the palate that during pregnancy is not firm.
But in the 13th century Pope Innocent III forbade surgery, and most of the doctors of th time began to consider dishonorable and vulgar the manuality of surgery which turned responsibility of the barbers. The plastic surgery was then reintroduced in Europe in the 9th -12th century by Arabs whom learned those in the Indo valley and brought those in the Mediterranean once again after Spain and Sicily had been conquested.

Cerrahiye-i Ilhaniye, the first illustrated text of surgery is assets of turkish-Islamic literature: Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu described there the techniques of maxillo-facial surgery, diseases of the eyelids and gynecomastia: still today his technique to remove the glandular tissue anticipates modern reductive mammoplastic.

At the Boulogne University, Italy, Leonardo Fioravanti disclosed the technique of transplantation. This goes back to Hindu civilization, around 2500 years ago, but it was reintroduced in Europe by the Arabs. The first description of Fioravanti, dates back to 1570 when “a Spanish gentleman called Andreas Gutiero, which had been cut off the nose in a duel, it had been dropped it in the sand and that I had in my hand, was full of sand: I urinate on it and I washed with it, I sticked it leaving it there 8-10 days. “. rough but effective.

A scyentific middle age illustration mixed with astrology

The short story of plastic surgery (476 d.C-1816 d.C)But in the 16th Century another dark period started for surgery, which than saw the light again thanks to the English just in the 18th century after India was conquested.

Lucas, a British surgeon, described the reconstruction of the nose by an Indian Koomas. Shortly before, was the 1791, Chopard reconstructed a lip using a flap of skin turned from the neck.
Among the readers of the full story of Joseph Lucas was Carpue, a York Hospital surgeon in Chelsea in England: he drilled on corpses and in 1814 accomplished the first step on a British official who had lost his nose for a poorly made aterapia basis on mercury, and on another journalist maimed by a saber. Carpue published his work under the title “Restoration of a Lost Nose” in 1816 giving new splendor to the Indian Rhinoplastic.

1818-1987

The birth of modern plastic surgery….

Breast operation in 1831, without anaesthetic and with low igenic precaution to avoid infections
Breast operation in 1831, without anaesthetic and with low igenic precaution to avoid infections

Two years later, the 1818 was running, the German surgeon Carl Von Graefe, considered the best surgeon in Europe and the father of modern plastic surgery, published “Rhinoplastik”: he there mentioned 55 rhynoplastic operations, but also measures to operate Blepharoplasty (eyelid plastic) and palatoplastica, so as to be considered the father of modern plastic surgery.

But only his successor made the techniques more tolerable thanks to the introduction of anesthesia and the nose operation in two steps to improve its appearance.
For the complete reconstruction of the nose the bone issue was a real problem: the answer goes back to 1892 when Robert Weir used the duck sternum, and coined for the first time the word “rhynomania”, the research of pathological perfection by the patients. “There is no doubt that this behavior persists today and iit s still one of the most important problems of aesthetic plastic surgery ‘.

But the first aesthetic operation is dated to the end of the 19th century thanks to John Orlando Roe, who made the first rhynoplastic operation.

 

….and the aesthetic one: the important is the beauty

Until the end of the century 19mo plastic surgery was almost exclusively reconstructive and of little value. Then the first world war changed all, thanks to military plastic surgery which was used to correct many trauma to the head reported in battle permitted to improve the discipline, particularly with regard to maxillofacial surgery. In plastic surgery military centers injuries of heads and necks were repaired and if before the first great war masks were used to cover the most terrible wounds after that, disfigured faces would have been repaired by surgeons.
Between 1920 and 1940 plastic surgery was also accepted in the university.

Improvements of anesthesia, use of transfusions, sulphonamides and penicillin permitted to control infections, reduce the rate of mortality and brought more morbidity to the procedures during the war. In some centers the plastic surgical mortality was zero. In addition, amputation in the Second World War was used less than in previous conflicts. In this period we learned to use the lieaco bone for facial bones reconstruction.

And the breast grows.
At the end of the 19th century surgery began to increase breasts with injections of synthetic material. In 1899 they tried with paraffin, then with beeswax, vegetable oils and other crap, until starting from 1960 when this practice was prohibited for damages caused to patients. It then went to implantable protheses: the first were ivory or glass, but those were abandoned because the breas did not seem natural. Then it was the turn of sponge mats, as the Ivalon, which could be modeled to give a more natural appearance to breast, but  by the time they got distorted or mor hard. The modern facilities, silicone-based, began in 1963.

Liposuction is the most recent: the technique of sucking fat with a cannula was invented from Ithe talian Arpad Fisher, and developed in 1987 by dermatologist Jeffrey Klein with a new technique which allowed the removal of a greater volume of fat, but with less loss of blood.

Amsterdam: History of the Red light District

A red light district is a neighborhood where prostitution and other businesses in the sex industry flourish. The term “red light district” was first recorded in the United States in 1894, in an article in The Sentinel, a newspaper in Milwaukee. Other mentions from the 1890s are numerous, and located all over the United States. The famous Red light district of Amsterdam is called “De Wallen”.

Tourist Attraction

De Wallen is the largest and best-known red light district in Amsterdam and a major tourist attraction. It is located in the heart of the oldest part of Amsterdam, covering several blocks south of the church Oude Kerk and crossed by several canals. The red light district is a network of alleys containing a little less than three hundred tiny one-room cabins rented by female prostitutes who offer their services from behind a window or glass door, typically illuminated with red lights. The area also has a number of sex shops, sex theatres, peep shows, a sex museum, a cannabis museum, and a number of coffee shops that sell marijuana.

Amsterdam: History of the Red light District

History of the Red light District

August 27, 2009 by Mark

A red light district is a neighborhood where prostitution and other businesses in the sex industry flourish. The term “red light district” was first recorded in the United States in 1894, in an article in The Sentinel, a newspaper in Milwaukee. Other mentions from the 1890s are numerous, and located all over the United States. The famous Red light district of Amsterdam is called “De Wallen”.

Tourist Attraction

De Wallen is the largest and best-known red light district in Amsterdam and a major tourist attraction. It is located in the heart of the oldest part of Amsterdam, covering several blocks south of the church Oude Kerk and crossed by several canals. The red light district is a network of alleys containing a little less than three hundred tiny one-room cabins rented by female prostitutes who offer their services from behind a window or glass door, typically illuminated with red lights. The area also has a number of sex shops, sex theatres, peep shows, a sex museum, a cannabis museum, and a number of coffee shops that sell marijuana.
Red light district Amsterdam

Origin of the red light district

The red light district has existed since the 14th century and formerly contained many distilleries, mainly catering to sailors. The name Wallen (walls) refers to the medieval retaining dam walls in the old center of Amsterdam.

Prostitution is legal in the Netherlands, with the exception of streetwalking. However, only EU citizens can work legally in the industry, since no working permits are given for prostitution.

While health and social services are readily available, sex workers are not required to undergo regular health checks. A study conducted before 2006 found that about 7 percent of all Dutch prostitutes (including street prostitutes) have HIV/AIDS. Brothel owners and room operators often require health certificates before employing or leasing rooms

Latest legislation

In September 2007, the city council of Amsterdam at the behest of mayor Job Cohen, concerned about trafficking and pimping in the area, forced the owner Charlie Geerts to close 51 prostitution windows, reducing the total number of windows in De Wallen by a third. Amsterdam authorities bought 18 properties from Geerts, with the aim of developing the area with fashion designers and other up scale businesses.

Mariska Majoor of the Prostitution Information Centre and representatives of the sex worker rights group De Rode Draad have decried the decision, claiming it would not reduce crime but would only lead to higher rent and more competition for the remaining windows.

In January 2008 the city council announced plans to close the Casa Rosso live sex theatre and the Banana bar strip club in the area. Local business owners have formed the group “Platform 1012″ (named after the zipcode of the area) to oppose the efforts of the Amsterdam government.

Matisse’s “Les Poissons Rouges”

Goldfish have been a recurrent theme in Matisse’s art. Born in 1869 in France (d. 1954), Henri Matisse is regarded as one of the greatest painters of the 20th century. A prolific and versatile artist, in his creations he favoured intense and expressive colours, and often depicted intimate or natural scenes.

Goldfish in a bowl are integral part of the scene in many of his works, including:

interieuravecbocal

Poissons rouges et palette [1914]
The Museum of Modern Art, New York (USA)

poissonsrougesetsculptuPoissons rouges et sculpture [1912]
The Museum of Modern Art, New York (USA)

Femme et poissons rouges [1921-23] (also known as: Woman before an aquarium) Art Institute, Chicago (USA)Femme et poissons rouges [1921-23]
(also known as: Woman before an aquarium)
Art Institute, Chicago (USA)

Poissons rouges [1909/1912?]Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen (Denmark)Poissons rouges [1909/1912?]
Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen (Denmark)

Intérieur avec bocal [1914]Intérieur avec bocal [1914]

poissonsrougesetpalettePoissons rouges et palette [1914]
The Museum of Modern Art, New York (USA)

If you’re interested in further reading, you may find these pages about Matisse’s art of some interest:
The Poissons Rouge [sic] Paintings, in English
Matisse, son œuvre, in French
Fauvism, in English

The History of Pizza

This is the history of the most relevant food for human

Circa 1000 A.D.: Pizza gets its start when peasants begin baking leftover, covered dough.

Early 1500s: Spanish conquistadors bring tomatoes to Europe from the New World.

Late 1500s: The first known recipes for the production of mozzarella cheese begin popping up in cookbooks.

Late 1600s: Although tomatoes are feared to be poisonous, peasants in Naples are the first to add them to their pizza.

1830: Port’Alba the world’s first pizzeria, opens in Naples. The proprietor bakes pizzas in an oven lined with lava harvested from Mount Vesuvius.

1889: Naples chef Raffaele Esposito prepares a red, white, and green pizza of tomatoes, mozzarella, and basil to honor a visit by Queen Margherita Teresa Giovanna. He names the pie the margherita.

1905: Gennaro Lombardi opens the first American pizzeria: Lombardi’s pizzeria, which was located at 53 ½ Spring St. in New York City. (The restaurant would later move to 32 Spring St.).

1943: Ric Riccardo Sr. and Ike Sewell invent a deep-dish pizza and begin serving it at their new Chicago restaurant, Pizzeria Uno — creating a flagship for the future chain.

1945: Buying a slice becomes increasingly popular as WWII veterans return from Italy and spread the pizza gospel.

1957:
The first frozen pizza — Celentano’s — appears in supermarkets.

1958: The first Pizza Hut opens in Wichita, Kansas. The first Domino’s opens just two years later in Ypsilanti, Michigan.

Mid-1970s: Chicago pizzerias add a top layer to their deep-dish pie, creating the miracle of stuffed pizza.

Early 1980s: Pizza goes gourmet, with upscale toppings such as duck and Gorgonzola.

1995: Kraft introduces DiGiorno pizza, the first “self-rising” frozen pie.